Heart Valve Surgery
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Heart Valve Surgery
Heart valve replacement surgery is performed to repair or replace the damage heart valve with an artificial valve.
When one of the four heart valve that keeps blood in right direction through your heart does not work properly, it indicates heart valve disease.
These are 4 heart valves which include:
- Aortic Valve- Located between the left ventricle and the aorta.
- Mitral Valve- Located between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
- Pulmonary Valve- Located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
- Tricuspid Valve- Located between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
After diagnosing the problem, doctor will decide that patient needs to undergo valve repair or valve replacement.
- Valve repair- it maintains patient’s valve and leaflets. Sometimes valve repair needs a minimal surgery procedure. Repair is done mostly for mitral valve regurgitation and tricuspid valve regurgitation.
- Valve replacement- it may include transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or other minimally invasive procedure.
Aortic valve and mitral valve replacements are mostly common. Pulmonary and tricuspid valve replacements are less in adults.
Narrowed valve replacement
Leaky valve replacement
Aortic regurgitation- it means that the valve allows blood to revert through the valve then into the heart instead of moving it forward and out to the body. Aortic regurgitation sometimes may cause heart failure.
Mitral regurgitation- it means that the mitral valve allows oxygenated blood to flow backwards into the lungs instead of continuing through the heart. Indications of mitral regurgitation are shortness of breath, abnormal heartbeats and angina.
There are two types of artificial valves used for a surgery.
- Mechanical valves are made from either carbon, metal, ceramic or plastic.
- Biological valves are made from human or animal tissue.
Valve replacement surgery procedure
A valve replacement surgery is performed under general anesthesia by cardiac surgeon. An intravenous (IV) line is inserted in the arm and catheters are added in the wrist and neck for assessment the blood pressure and overall heart condition. The surgeon makes an incision and the breastbone is divided into two halves, exposing the heart. Tubes are inserted in the heart to make blood flow and circulation in the body with the help of a machine called Cardiopulmonary bypass. Once the blood is diverted, the heart is injected with a cold solution and then the valve is replaced then the heart is restarted using electrical shock paddles.